Mastering Advanced C# Topics: Ace Your Technical Interviews

Mastering Advanced C# Topics Ace Your Technical Interviews practice

C# (pronounced “C-sharp”) is a statically-typed, object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft. It was created as part of the .NET initiative and was first released in 2000 alongside the .NET framework. The language was designed for modern software development and is widely used for a variety of applications, ranging from web and desktop applications to mobile and embedded systems.

Key Characteristics of C#

Object-Oriented

C# fully supports object-oriented programming, including inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation, making it easier to create modular and maintainable code.

Strongly Typed

The language is strongly typed, which means that type-checking occurs at compile-time. This helps to minimize errors related to data type mismatches.

Platform-Independent

While C# was originally developed for the Windows operating system, it has since been made available on other platforms thanks to the .NET Core framework (now unified into the .NET 5/6+ frameworks). You can now run C# applications on Linux, macOS, and more.

Modern Syntax

C# offers a clean, modern syntax that is designed to be easy to read and write. It includes features that simplify common programming tasks, like properties, indexers, and events.

Comprehensive Standard Library

C# has a robust standard library that provides a wide array of features and functionalities out of the box, from file I/O and database connectivity to web development and data manipulation.

Community and Corporate Support

Being a language developed by Microsoft, C# enjoys strong corporate backing and a large and active community. This translates to excellent documentation, tutorials, and third-party libraries.

Versatile

C# is used in a variety of application domains, such as:

  • Web Development (using ASP.NET)
  • Desktop Applications (WinForms, WPF)
  • Mobile Applications (Xamarin)
  • Game Development (Unity)
  • Cloud Computing
  • Internet of Things (IoT)

Interoperable

C# can interoperate with other languages that run on the .NET platform. It can also use native libraries, making it a good choice for both cross-platform and platform-specific development.

Regularly Updated

C# continues to evolve, with new features and functionalities regularly added to the language, making it a contemporary choice for modern software development.

Overall, C# is a powerful, versatile language that is well-suited for a wide range of software development tasks.

Ready to dive into the intricacies of C# for your upcoming technical interviews? You’ve come to the right place. We’ll cover topics that are not just academic but are often encountered in real-world scenarios. From delegates to asynchronous programming, this guide will provide you with a comprehensive review.

Table of Contents

  1. Delegates and Events
  2. LINQ
  3. Asynchronous Programming with async and await
  4. Design Patterns
  5. Exception Handling
  6. Reflection
  7. Generics
  8. Attributes
  9. Multithreading
  10. IDisposable and Garbage Collection

1. Delegates and Events

Why it’s important: Delegates serve as function pointers, enabling higher-order programming. Events use delegates for event handling.

Key Points

  • Syntax of declaring delegates
  • Anonymous methods and Lambda expressions
  • The use of Action and Func delegates
  • Declaring and using events

Practice Question: How would you use a delegate to sort an array of numbers in ascending and descending order?


2. LINQ (Language-Integrated Query)

Why it’s important: LINQ allows for powerful querying capabilities directly within C#.

Key Points

  • Query syntax vs Method syntax
  • Deferred vs Immediate execution
  • IEnumerable vs IQueryable

Practice Question: Demonstrate the use of LINQ to filter and sort a list of objects.


3. Asynchronous Programming with async and await

Why it’s important: Asynchronous programming helps in improving application performance and responsiveness.

Key Points

  • Basics of Task
  • Using async and await
  • Task Combinators like Task.WhenAll

Practice Question: How would you download multiple files concurrently using async and await?


4. Design Patterns

Why it’s important: Design patterns offer reusable solutions to common coding challenges.

Key Points

  • Singleton
  • Factory Method
  • Observer

Practice Question: Implement the Singleton pattern in C#.


5. Exception Handling

Why it’s important: Proper error-handling ensures robustness in software applications.

Key Points

  • try, catch, finally, throw
  • Custom Exceptions
  • Logging Exceptions

Practice Question: How would you gracefully handle a NullReferenceException?


6. Reflection

Why it’s important: Reflection allows inspecting and manipulating object types and members at runtime.

Key Points

  • Using Type class
  • Accessing attributes
  • Creating instances dynamically

Practice Question: How would you use reflection to invoke a method dynamically?


7. Generics

Why it’s important: Generics allow for type-safe data structures without compromising performance.

Key Points

  • Defining Generic Classes, Methods, and Interfaces
  • Constraints in Generics

Practice Question: Implement a generic method to swap two variables of any type.


8. Attributes

Why it’s important: Attributes provide a powerful way to add declarative information to your code.

Key Points

  • Predefined Attributes
  • Custom Attributes
  • Accessing Attributes using Reflection

Practice Question: How would you create and use a custom attribute to mark deprecated methods?


9. Multithreading

Why it’s important: Multithreading enables executing multiple operations concurrently.

Key Points

  • Thread class and ThreadPool
  • Thread Safety
  • lock keyword

Practice Question: How would you ensure that a piece of code is thread-safe?


10. IDisposable and Garbage Collection

Why it’s important: Understanding garbage collection and resource management is crucial for building efficient applications.

Key Points

  • Garbage Collection Process
  • Dispose and Finalize methods
  • Using using statement

Practice Question: How would you manage unmanaged resources in a C# application?

C# Advanced Tutorial

Table of Contents

  1. Delegates and Events
  2. LINQ
  3. Asynchronous Programming with async and await
  4. Design Patterns
  5. Exception Handling
  6. Reflection
  7. Generics
  8. Attributes
  9. Multithreading
  10. IDisposable and Garbage Collection

1. Delegates and Events

Delegates

A delegate is a type-safe function pointer. You can use it to pass methods as arguments.

// Declare a delegate
public delegate void MyDelegate(string message);

// Usage
public void ShowMessage(string message)
{
Console.WriteLine(message);
}

MyDelegate del = ShowMessage;
del(“Hello, World!”);

Events

Events in C# provide a way for a class to notify other classes when something of interest occurs.

public class EventPublisher
{
public event MyDelegate MyEvent;

public void RaiseEvent()
{
    MyEvent?.Invoke("Event raised!");
}

}

2. LINQ (Language-Integrated Query)

LINQ allows you to perform complex queries on collections.

var numbers = new List { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
var evenNumbers = numbers.Where(n => n % 2 == 0).ToList();

3. Asynchronous Programming with async and await

async and await help you write asynchronous code more easily.

public async Task DoSomethingAsync()
{
await Task.Delay(1000);
Console.WriteLine(“Task is done!”);
}

4. Design Patterns

Singleton Pattern

Ensure a class has only one instance and provide a global point to access it.

public sealed class Singleton
{
private static readonly Singleton instance = new Singleton();
private Singleton() {}
public static Singleton Instance => instance;
}


5. Exception Handling

Handle exceptions to make your program more robust.

try
{
// Risky code
}
catch (Exception ex)
{
// Handle exception
}
finally
{
// Cleanup
}


6. Reflection

Reflection allows you to inspect metadata and manipulate types at runtime.

Type myType = typeof(MyClass);
MethodInfo methodInfo = myType.GetMethod(“MyMethod”);


7. Generics

Generics promote code reusability and type safety.

public class MyGenericClass
{
public T MyProperty { get; set; }
}


8. Attributes

Attributes add metadata to your code elements.

[Obsolete(“Use NewMethod instead.”)]
public void OldMethod() { }


9. Multithreading

Execute multiple tasks concurrently for better performance.

Thread myThread = new Thread(new ThreadStart(MyMethod));
myThread.Start();


10. IDisposable and Garbage Collection

Properly manage resources by implementing the IDisposable interface.

public class MyResource : IDisposable
{
public void Dispose()
{
// Free resources
}
}


This tutorial is meant to give you an introduction to some of the more advanced topics in C#. To become proficient, you’ll need to dive deeper into each of these areas and get hands-on experience through real-world projects. Happy coding!

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